History of the Kings of Britain: Historia Regum Britanniae By Geoffrey of Monmouth Book III

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After Dunwallo’s death, his two sons, Belinus, to wit, and Brennius, both desirous of succeeding him in the kingdom, clashed the one upon the other with a mighty shock. For the contention between them was which of the twain should wear the diadem of the realm. But after they had fought may battles thereanent betwixt themselves, the friends of both did intervene between them and restored them to concord, covenanting that the kingdom should be shared between them on this condition, that Belinus should have the crown of the island along with Loegria, Kambria, and Cornwall to boot, forasmuch as he was the elder born, and Trojan custom did demand that the dignity of the inheritance should fall unto him, while Brennius, for that he was the younger, should be subject to his brother, and should hold Northumbria from the Humber as far as Caithness. These covenants being duly confirmed by treaty, they governed the country for a space of five years in peace and justice. But, for that discord doth ever seek to intermeddle with prosperity, certain forgers of falsehoods were not lacking that found access to Brennius, saying unto him: ‘What sluggard sloth hath thus beset thee to hold thee in subjection unto Belinus, when the same father and mother and the same nobility have made thee his peer? Add to this, moreover, how in many a hard- fought battle thou hast over and over again shown how thou couldst withstand Cheulf, Duke of the Morini, and put him to flight when he would have made good his landing upon the shores of our province. Break, therefore, this covenant that is a disgrace unto thee, and take to wife the daughter of the King of Norway, and by his help recover the dignity thou hast lost.’ After that they had corrupted the youth’s mind with these and other like conceits, he at last assented unto their counsel, sailed away to Norway, and married the King’s daughter, even as he had been advised by these glozing sycophants.




Meanwhile, when this was reported to his brother, he took it in dudgeon that without asking leave or licence he had thus acted against him. He therefore marched into Northumbria and took the cities of them of that province, garrisoning them with his own men. Whereupon Brennius, hearing a rumour that notified him of his brother’s doings, fitted out a fleet and returned to Britain, bringing with him a strong force of Norwegians. But whilst that he was cleaving the level fields of the sea with a fair wind and without misgiving, Guichtlac, King of the Danes, who had followed him, fell upon him suddenly, he himself being desperately enamoured of the damsel that Brennius had married. Aggrieved, therefore, beyond measure at his loss of her, he had fitted forth his ships and men and started in pursuit of him full sail. In the battle at sea that followed it so happened that he came alongside the ship wherein was the foresaid damsel, and making the vessel fast to his own with grappling hooks, fetched the damsel out of the one aboard the other and set her down in the midst of his own shipmates. But whilst the barks were thus grappled together and were swaying about hither and thither in the deep sea, foul winds rise of a sudden, and in the squall the ships are parted, and driven by stress of weather upon different coasts. The King of Denmark, after drifting for five days out of his course before the tempest in continual terror, made land at last with the damsel on the coast of Northumbria, knowing not upon what shores he had been cast by this unlooked-for disaster. And when the men of the country learned what had fallen out, they took and brought them to Belinus, who was awaiting his brother’s arrival in the parts by the sea. There were also along with Guichtlac’s ships three other ships, whereof one was of them that Brennius had fitted out. Glad enough was the King when he heard who they were, but yet more exceeding glad that this had befallen him just at the very moment he was most desirous of being revenged upon his brother.




After a space of some days, Brennius had got his ships together again, and, to and behold ye, landeth on the coast of Albany. Forthwith, as soon as he heareth how his bride and they that were with her have been taken captive, and that in his absence his brother hath wrested from him, the kingdom of Northumbria, he sendeth messengers unto him, demanding that his kingdom and his bride shall be at once restored unto him, otherwise he will lay the whole island waste from sea to sea, and slay his brother whensoever and wheresoever he may meet him withal. Which when Belinus understood, he flatly refused his demand, and summoning all the host of the island marcheth into Albany to do battle with him. But Brennius, when he knew that he had only asked to be denied, and that his brother was thus coming against him, went to meet him in the forest that is called Calaterium, there to meet and do battle with him. Both, accordingly, took up a position on the same field, each dividing his fellows into companies, and advancing the one upon the other, began the engagement at close quarters. Great part of the day was spent in fighting, for they of greater prowess on both sides met hand to hand. Great was the bloodshed on the one side and on the other, for sore deadly were the wounds they dealt with their brandished weapons, and the wounded fell before the onset of the companies as they had been corn before the reaper’s sickle. At last the Britons prevail, and the Norwegians flee with their maimed and mangled companies to their ships. Belinus pursueth them as they flee, making slaughter without pity. In that battle fell 15,000 men, nor of the residue was there a single thousand that escaped unharmed. Brennius, just making shift to reach one ship that fortune threw in his way, betook him to the coast of Gaul. But the rest who had come with him could only skulk away to the best hiding-place they could find as chance might guide them.




When Belinus had achieved the victory, he summoned all the nobles of the realm to meet him at York, to take counsel with him as to what he should do with the King of the Danes. For the King had sent him word from his prison that he would submit himself and the kingdom of Denmark unto him, and pay him yearly tribute, so he were allowed to depart freely along with his mistress. He sent word further that he would confirm the covenant by solemn oath, and give hostages for its fulfilment. When this offer was laid before the assembled nobles, all of them signified their willingness that Belinus should grant Guichtlac’s petition on these terms. He himself also agreed, and Guichtlac, released from prison, returned to Den mark with his mistress.




Belinus, moreover, finding none in the kingdom Britain that was minded to withstand him, and at he was undisputed master of the island from sea to sea, confirmed the laws which his father had ordained, and commanded that even and steadfast justice should be done throughout the realm. Especially careful was he to proclaim that the cities and the highways that led unto the city should have the same peace that Dunwallo has established therein. But a dissension arose as concerning the highways, for that none knew the line whereby their boundaries were determined. The King therefore, being minded to leave no loophole for quibbles in the law, called together all the workmen of the whole island, and commanded a highway to be builded of stone and mortar that should cut through the entire length of the island from the Cornish sea to the coast of Caithness, and should run in a straight line from one city unto another the whole of the way along. A second also he bade be made across the width of the kingdom, which, stretching from the city of Menevia on the sea of Demetia as far as Hamo’s port, should show clear guidance to the cities along the line. Two others also he made be laid out slantwise athwart the island so as to afford access unto the other cities. Then he dedicated them with all honour and dignity, and proclaimed it as of his common law, that condign punishment should be inflicted on any that shall do violence to other thereupon. But if that any would fain know all of his ordinances as concerning them, let him read the Molmutine laws that Gildas the historian did translate out of the British into Latin, and King Alfred out of Latin into the English tongue.




In the meanwhile that Belinus was reigning in peace and tranquillity, his brother Brennius, driven forth, as hath been said, to the shores of Gaul, was sore tormented of inward tribulation. For he took it grievously to heart that he was banished from his country, without any means of returning thither so as to enjoy again the dignity he had lost. Not knowing therefore what to do, he betook him unto the Princes of Gaul, with a company of twelve knights only. And when he had laid open his ill-fortune unto them all, and found that no succour could he obtain from any, he came at last unto Segin, Duke of the Allobroges, and of him was right honourably received. And whilst that he was still sojourning with him, he entered into so close familiarity with the Duke, as, that none other was there in his court that was preferred before him. For in all matters, whether of peace or of war, such prowess did he show that the Duke loved him with a father’s love. For he was comely to look upon, tall and big of limb, and, as was meet, well-taught in hawking and venery. And for that he had fallen into so near friendship with the Duke, Segin determined that he should take unto him his only daughter in lawful wedlock. And if thereafter it should so be that the Duke were without heir male, he granted Brennius that after his own death he should have the kingdom of the Allobroges along with his daughter. But in case a son should be born unto the Duke, he promised his assistance in raising him to the kingship of Britain, and this was promised him not only by the Duke but by all the champion knights that were of the Duke’s allegiance, so great was the friendship they bare towards him. Straightway thereupon the damsel is given in marriage to Brennius, the princes of the land become his men, and the throne of the country is conferred upon him. Nor had the full twelvemonth elapsed wherein these matters were settled, before the Duke’s last day arrived, and he departed out of this life. Then Brennius neglected not the occasion to bind unto himself yet more closely those princes of the land whose friendship he had aforetime secured, by distributing largesse among them from the Duke’s treasure that had been hoarded from the time of his ancestors. And, that which the Allobroges did hold of yet higher esteem, he was right bountiful in his gifts of victual and never shut his door against no man.




Having thus drawn the affection of every man to himself, he deliberated inwardly in what manner he might take his revenge upon his brother Belinus, and when he announced his plans unto the people that were his lieges, they all with one accord declared that they would go with him into whatsoever land he might design to lead them. Nor did he linger, for, assembling a mighty host, he entered into covenant with the Gauls for leave to pass unmolested through their provinces on his way towards Britain. Forthwith he fitted out a fleet on the shore of Neustria, and launching into the deep, with a fair wind made good his landing on the island. As soon as the tidings of his arrival was bruited abroad, his brother Belinus, mustering all the youth of the kingdom, marched forth to meet him. But while their companies were still standing in orderly rank on the two sides just ready to begin the engagement, the mother of both, who was still living, pressed her hastily forward in the midst of the serried ranks. Her name was Conwenna, and the desire of her heart was to look again upon her son whom she had not seen of so long a time. Accordingly, so soon as she had reached with trembling steps the place where he was standing, she flung her arms about his neck, and stayed the yearning of her heart by kissing him again and yet again. Then, baring her bosom, she spake unto him on this wise in a voice broken by her sobs: ‘Remember, my son, remember these breasts that thou hast sucked and the womb that bare thee wherein the Maker of all things hath created thee man of man and brought thee forth into the world through the throes of child-birth. Remember all the anxieties that I have suffered for thee, and grant thou this my petition! Yield thy pardon unto thy brother, and constrain the wrath that thou hast conceived against him, for no revenge is thine of right as against one that hath never offered thee either insult or injury. Even this that thou dost urge against him, to wit, that through him thou hast been banished from thy kingdom, if so be that thou wilt more narrowly look into the bearings of the case, nought wilt thou find therein that thou canst call a wrong. For he banished thee not that any worse thing might befall thee, but he compelled thee to forego the worser things that thou mightest be exalted unto the better. For whereas thou didst only possess thy share of the kingdom as his vassal, now that thou hast lost it, thou art his peer in that thou hast obtained the realm of the Allobroges. What else hath he done herein, save that from being a needy knight, he hath promoted thee to be a high and mighty king? Add to this that the quarrel which hath risen betwixt ye was none of his seeking, but was begun by thee when, trusting to the King’s help of Norway, thou didst burn to rebel against him!’


Moved, therefore, by the prayer unto which she had thus given utterance, in a chastened spirit he yielded obedience to her will, and doing off his helmet, walked forward with her to his brother. Belinus, when he saw him thus coming towards him with a countenance of peace, flung aside his arms and ran into his embrace with a kiss. The brothers made friends forthwith, and with their disarmed troops made their way unto the city of Trinovantum. There taking counsel what they should do, they made them ready to lead their common army into Gaul, and to subject all the provinces thereof to their dominion.




At the end of the year they passed the Channel into Gaul, and began to lay the country waste. When the tidings thereof were bruited abroad among the various nations, all the knights of the Franks came to meet them and fight against them. But the victory falling to Belinus and Brennius, the Franks fled with their wounded companies in all directions. But the Britons and Allobroges, so soon as they had won the day, ceased not to follow up the fleeing Gauls until they had taken captive their Kings and compelled them to surrender. Setting garrisons in the cities they overthrew, they reduced the whole kingdom to submission within a single twelvemonth. Lastly, when they had forced all the provinces to yield, they started for Rome with all their host, and ravaged the cities and farms throughout Italy.




At that time there were two Consuls at Rome, Gabius and Porsena, unto whose government the country had been committed, who, when they saw that no people were so strong they might withstand the fierce fury of Belinus and Brennius, came unto them with consent of the Senate, to bespeak their goodwill and friendship. They offered, moreover, presents of much gold and silver, and a tribute every year so they might be allowed to hold their own in peace. Taking hostages, therefore, to secure their loyalty, the Kings granted them pardon, and led their troops into Germany. Natheless, so soon as ever they had set them to work ravaging that country, the Romans repented them of the foresaid covenant, and taking courage afresh, marched forth to help the Germans. When the Kings found it out, they took it in grievous dudgeon, and held counsel how best to meet the attack of the two peoples together, for so huge a multitude of Italians had arrived that they were in no small jeopardy. Wherefore, after taking counsel together, Belinus with his Britons remained in Germany to carry on the war against the enemy, while Brennius with his armies marched upon Rome to take revenge for the broken covenant. Howbeit, the Italians coming to know thereof, deserted the Germans, and hurried back to Rome, doing their best to out-march the advance of Brennius and get there first. But when their design was notified to Belinus, he called back his army, and starting off as soon as night was past, took possession of a certain valley through which the enemy would have to pass, and lying in ambush there, waited for their arrival. On the morrow at dawn, the Italians, who had begun their march, reached the same spot, and when they beheld before them the valley glittering with the arms of their enemies, at once surmised in dismay that they who were there were Brennius and his Senonian Gauls. Thereupon, as soon as the enemy were well in sight, Belinus suddenly charged down upon them and dashed swiftly into their midst. In a moment the Romans, marching disorderly and without arms, were utterly taken aback, and skurried off the field in headlong flight, followed hard by Belinus, who never once stinted of slaughtering them without mercy till night came on and he could no longer see to make an end of the bloodshed. After this victory he followed in search of Brennius, who had already been three days besieging Rome. They joined forces, accordingly, and the common army made a general assault upon the city, and doing their utmost to breach the walls. Moreover, by way of adding terror to slaughter, they set up gibbets in front of the city gates, and sent word to the besieged that they would hang up the hostages they had given on the gallows-tree in case they were minded not to surrender. Natheless, the Romans, persisting in their purpose, scorned to take pity on their sons and grandsons, and determined to defend themselves all drive the enemy back from the walls, at one time shattering their engines either with appliances devised for defence or with counter engines of the same kind, and at another with weapons and missiles of all sorts. So, when the brethren saw that they were thus loath to yield, in a fit of insolent wrath they bade hang four-and-twenty of the noblest among the hostages in sight of their kinsfolk. But the Romans only thereby provoked to a yet more insolent stubbornness, and relying on a message they had received from the Consuls Gabius and Porsena to the effect that they would come to their succour on the morrow, resolved to make a sally from the city and do battle with the besiegers. Marching forth accordingly, in close file, they made a sudden assault upon the Allobroges and Britons, and the citizens also issuing forth with them, helped them to do no small slaughter at the outset. Natheless, the brethren, when they saw so sudden a discomfiture inflicted on their fellow-soldiers, were right sore uneasy, and with redoubled vigour cheered them on, re-formed their ranks, and leading on one assault after another compelled them to give ground. At the last, after many thousand fighting men had been slain, he victory rested with the brethren; Gabius was slain, Porsena made prisoner, the city was taken. Nought remained for them but to distribute the hidden treasures of the citizens in largesse to their comrades.




After he had won this victory, Brennius abode still in Italy, and trampled upon the people thereof with tyranny unheard of. But of his other deeds and of his end, for that they be written in the Roman histories, I do in no wise care to treat, seeing that thereby I should import too great a prolixity into my work, and that in going over ground which others have already beaten, I should be turning aside from my present purpose. Howbeit Belinus returned to Britain and ruled the kingdom all the rest of his life in peace. Wheresoever the cities that had aforetime been builded had fallen into decay he restored them, and many new ones did he found. Amongst others he did lay out one upon the river Usk nigh the Severn sea, that was of many ages called Kaerusk, that was the mother city of Demetia. But after that the Romans came hither, the old name was done away and it was called the City of the Legions, drawing the name from the Roman legions that wont to winter there. In the city of Trinovantum made he a gate of marvellous workmanship upon the banks of Thames, the which the citizens do still in these days call Billingsgate after his name. He builded, moreover, a tower of wondrous bigness, with a quay at the foot whereunto ships could come alongside. He renewed his father’s laws everywhere throughout the kingdom, rejoicing always in doing steady and even-handed justice. In his days, therefore, did he cause such wealth to accrue unto his people as that the like hath never been heard tell of in any age neither before nor since. At the end, when his last day did snatch him away from this life, his body was burnt and his ashes were enclosed in a golden urn which they placed with wondrous skilful artifice upon the top of the foresaid tower.




Afterward, his son succeeded him, Gurgiunt Brabtruc, a sober man and a prudent, who, imitating his father’s deeds in all things, did love peace and justice, and when his neighbours rebelled against him, taking fresh courage by ensample of his father, he fought sundry right bloody battles against them, and forced his enemies back into subjection due. Amongst other matters it so fell out that the King of Denmark who had paid tribute in his father’s days did eschew making the same payment unto himself, denying that he owed him any subjection. He thereupon, taking the matter in high choler, led a fleet into Denmark, and after afflicting the people with grievous deadly havoc, slew the King and imposed his ancient yoke upon the country.




At that time, when he was returning home after the victory by the Isles of Orkney, he fell in with thirty ships thronged with men and women, and when he made inquiry as to the reason of their coming thither, their Duke, Partholoim by name, came unto him, and, doing him much worship, besought pardon of him and peace. He had been banished, he said, from the parts of Spain, and was cruising in those waters in search of a land wherein to settle. He made petition, moreover, that some small share of Britain might be allotted unto them wherein to dwell, so as that they need no longer rove the irksome highways of the sea. Wherefore, when Gurgiunt Brabtruc had learnt that they came out of Spain and were called Barclenses, and that this was the drift of their petition, he sent men with them to the island of Hibernia which at that time was desert without a single inhabitant, and made them a grant thereof. Thenceforward they did there increase and multiply, and have held the island even unto this day. But Gurgiunt Brabtruc, when that he had fulfilled the days of his life in peace, was buried in the City of Legions which after his father’s death he had made it his care to beautify with public buildings and walls.




After him, Guithelin won the crown of the kingdom which all the days of his life he governed in kindly and sober wise. His wife was a noble woman named Martia, learned in all the arts. She, among many other and unheard-of things that she had found out of her own natural wit, did devise the law which the Britons call Martiana. This also did King Alfred translate along with the others and called it in the Saxon tongue the Mercian law. And when Guithelin died, the rule of the kingdom fell unto the foresaid Queen and her son who was called Sisillius. For, at that time, Sisillius was but of seven year, nor did his age warrant that the rule of the kingdom should be given up into his hands.




For which reason, she being wise in counsel and politic beyond the common, did obtain the empire of the whole island. When she departed out of the light of this world, Sisillius took the crown, and held the helm of state. After him, Kimar his son held rule, unto whom succeeded Danius by his brother, and after his death was Morvid crowned, who was son of his father Danius by Tangustela his concubine. He would have been of highest renown for his prowess, had he not given way to exceeding great cruelty, for no man would he spare in his wrath, but would slay him on the spot had he any weapon at hand. Natheless was he comely of aspect and profuse in giving of largesse, nor was there another of so great valour in the land as that he could withstand him in single combat.




In his days did a certain King of the Moranians land with a great force on the shore of Northumbria and began to ravage the country. Morvid, thereupon collecting together all the youth of his dominions, marched forth against them and did battle with him. He was of more avail in fighting singly than was the greater part of the army of his dominions put together, and when he had won the victory not a soul was left on live that he id not slay. For he commanded them to be brought unto him one after the other that he might glut his blood-thirst by putting them to death; and when he ceased for a time out of sheer weariness, he ordered them be skinned alive, and burnt after they were skinned. But in the midst of these his cruel outrages a calamity befell hint that put an end to his wickedness. For a beast, more fell than any monster ever heard of before, came up from the Irish sea and preyed continually upon the seafaring folk that dwelt in those parts. And when Morvid heard tidings thereof, he came unto the beast and fought with her single-handed. But when he had used up all his weapons against her in vain, the monster ran upon him with open jaws and swallowed him up as he had been a little fish.




Five sons had been born unto him, whereof the eldest-born, Gorbonian, succeeded to the throne. None at that time was a man more just, nor more a lover of upright dealing, nor none that ruled his people with greater diligence. For it was ever his custom to pay first due honour unto the gods and then right justice to the commonalty. He restored the temples of the gods throughout all the cities of Britain and budded many new. All his days did the island abound in a plenty of riches such as none of the neighbouring countries did enjoy. For he enjoined the husbandmen to till their lands, and protected them against the oppressions of their landlords. His young men of war, moreover, he did maintain with gold and silver in such sort as none of them should have need to do injury unto any other. In the midst of these d many other deeds that bare witness unto his born goodness, he paid the debt of nature, and, parting from the light of this world, was buried the city of Trinovantum.




After him, Arthgallo his brother wore the crown the kingdom, a man in all he did the very contrary of his brother. For he made it his business everywhere to smite down the noble and upraise the base; to take away from the rich that which was their own, and to heap up untold treasure for himself. The which the barons of the realm refusing to put up with any longer, raised an insurrection against him, and deposed him from the throve of the kingdom. They then raised thereunto Elidur his brother, who for the pity that he afterward showed unto his brother was called the Pious. For after that he had held the kingdom a space of five years, whilst he was hunting in the forests of Calaterium, it so fell out that he met his brother who had been deposed. His brother had wandered through sundry of the provincial kingdoms seeking for help to recover his lost honours, but help nowhere could he find, and when he could no longer endure the poverty that had overtaken him, had returned to Britain with a company of ten knights only. Seeking out, therefore, such as had aforetime been his friends, he was passing through the foresaid forest when Elidur his brother espied him in such unhoped-for wise. As soon as he saw him he ran up to him and embraced him, kissing him again and again. And when he had wept long time over his brother’s mean estate, he brought him with him to the city of Alclud and hid him in his own chamber. He then feigned that he himself was there lying sick and sent his messengers throughout the whole kingdom to intimate unto those princes that were vassals of the crown that he was fain they should come to visit him. And when all had come together in the city where he lay, he bade that each one of them should come severally into his chamber without making any noise. For he said that the sound of many voices would be hurtful to his head in case they all came in together in a crowd. Each one, therefore, believing the story, obeyed his bidding and came into the house orderly, the one after another. Elidur, the meanwhile, had given order unto his serjeants that were there all ready, to take each one as he came in, and, save he were minded again to swear allegiance unto Arthgallo his brother, to smite off his head. Thus did he deal severally with them all, and so, by fear of death, reconciled them all unto Arthgallo. When the covenant was duly confirmed, Elidur brought Arthgallo unto the city of York, and taking the crown off his own head set it upon that of his brother. Hence it was that the name of the Pious was bestowed upon him, for that he had shown, as I have said, this pity towards his brother. Arthgallo, accordingly, reigned ten years, and did so amend him of his former misdeeds, as that now he did begin to abase the baser sort and to exalt the gentler, to allow every man to hold his own, and to do right justice. After a time, falling into a lethargy, he died and was buried in the city of Carlisle.




Thereafter Elidur was again made King, and was restored unto his former dignity. But whilst that he was following his eldest brother Gorbonian in all good deeds, his twain other brothers, Vigenius and Peredur, assembling armed men from every quarter, march forth to fight against him. Having won the victory, they took him and shut him up within the tower of the city of Trinovantum, setting a guard to watch. Afterward, they shared the kingdom in twain, whereof that part which stretcheth westward from Humber fell to the lot of Vigenius, but the other with the whole of Albany to Peredur. At last, after seven years had slipped away, Vigenius died and the whole kingdom fell unto Peredur. When the sceptre was set in his hand, he did ever thereafter govern the kingdom mildly and soberly, insomuch that it was said of him that he did excel his brothers who had gone before him, nor was any mention made of Elidur. But, for that death knoweth not to spare any man, she came upon him unawares and snatched him away from life. Then straightway is Elidur led forth from prison and a third time raised to the throne, who, after that he had fulfilled his time in bounty and justice, passing forth from the light of this world left his piety as an ensample unto them that should come after him.




After Elidur’s death, a son of Gorbonian took the crown of the kingdom, and did imitate his uncle in wisdom as in wit. For, eschewing all tyranny, he exercised justice and mercy towards his people, nor turned aside from the path of righteousness. After him reigned Margan, the son of Arthgallo, who, taking ensample by the gentleness of his kinsfolk, ruled the nation of the Britons in tranquillity. Him succeeded Enniaun, his brother, who departed so widely from his father’s wont in his treatment of the people, that in the sixth year of his reign he was deposed from the throne of the realm. In his place was set his kinsman Idwallo, the son of Vigenius, who, admonished by the fate that had befallen Enniaun, did pursue the paths of justice and righteousness. Unto him succeeded Runno, son of Peredur, and him Geruntius, son of Elidur, After him came Catell his son, and after Catell, Coill; after Coill, Porrex, and after Porrex, Cherin. Unto him were born three sons, Fulgenius, to wit, Eldad and Andragius, who reigned the one after the other. Thenceforward, Urian, son of Andragius, succeeded, unto whom Eliud, unto whom Cledauc, unto whom Cleto, unto whom Gurgintius, unto whom Merian, unto whom Bledun, unto whom Cap, unto whom Owen, unto whom Sisillius, unto whom Blegabred. He surpassed all the singers of the forepast age, both in measures of harmony and in the fashioning of all manner of musical instruments, so as that he might seem the very god of all minstrels. After him reigned Arthmail his brother, and after Arthmail Eldol, unto whom succeeded Redion, unto horn Rhodderch, unto whom Samuilpenissel, to whom Pir, unto whom Capoir. Then succeeded Cligueill, the son of Capoir, a man in all his acts moderate and prudent, and who above all things did exercise right justice among his peoples.




After him succeeded his son Hely, and ruled the kingdom for forty year. Unto him were born three sons, Lud, Cassibelaunus and Nennius, whereof the eldest born, Lud, to wit, took the kingdom on his father’s death. Thereafter, for that a right glorious city-builder was he, he renewed the walls of Trinovantum, and girdled it around with innumerable towers. He did likewise enjoin the citizens that they should build houses and stately fabrics therein, so as that no city in far-off kingdoms should contain fairer palaces. He himself was a man of war, and bountiful in giving of feasts. And, albeit that he had many cities in his dominion, yet this did he love above all other, and therein did he sojourn the greater part of the whole year, whence it was afterward named Kaerlud, and after that, by corruption of the name, Kaerlondon. In a later day, by the changing of the tongues, it was called London, and yet later, after the landing of the foreign folk that did subdue the country unto themselves, hath it been called Londres. Alter the death of Lud, his body was buried in the foresaid city nigh unto that gate, which even yet is called Porthlud in British, but in Saxon Ludgate. Two sons were born unto him, Androgeus and Tenuantius, but for that by reason of their infancy they were unable to rule the kingdom, their uncle Cassibelaunus was raised to the throne of the kingdom in their stead. So soon as he was crowned King, he did so abound alike in bounty and in prowess, as that his fame was bruited abroad, even in far-off kingdoms. Whence it came to pass that the kingship of the whole realm did fall unto him and not unto his nephews. Howbeit, Cassibelaunus, yielding willingly to natural affection, was not minded that the youths should be without kingdoms of their own, wherefore he allotted a large share of the realm unto each. For the city of Trinovantum did he grant unto Androgeus along with the duchy of Kent, and the duchy of Cornwall unto Tenuantius. He himself, howbeit, as wearing the sovereign dignity of the crown, was mindful to hold them along with all the princes of the whole island in vassalage unto himself.

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