English Earldoms in 1376

Earl of Kent:
Thomad de Holand, b. ([1350]-25 Apr 1397, became Earl in 1360 on death of his father. m (after 10 Apr 1364) ALICE FitzAlan, daughter of RICHARD FitzAlan 9th Earl of Arundel & his wife Eleanor of Lancaster ([1350]-17 Mar 1416).
10 children, all fairly young at this time.
Earl of Norfolk:
MARGARET ([1320/22]-24 Mar 1399, bur Charterhouse, Smithfield, London or Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London).  She succeeded her father in 1338[675] as Countess of Norfolk, suo iure.  She was created Duchess of Norfolk for life 29 Sep 1397.
She seems to have had two husbands, both of whom were dead by this time.
Her grandson, Thomas Mowbray, would become Duke of Norfolk in 1397 and Earl of Norfolk in 1399. He was born in 1366.
Earl of Warwick:
THOMAS de Beauchamp (before 16 Mar 1339-8 Apr 1401, bur Warwick, St Mary’s).  He succeeded his father in 1369 as Earl of Warwick.  m (before Apr 1381) MARGARET Ferrers, daughter of WILLIAM Ferrers 3rd Lord Ferrers of Groby & his first wife Margaret de Ufford Earl of Suffolk (-22 Jan 1407, bur Warwick, St Mary’s).  Earl Thomas & his wife had one child, Richard, born in 1382.
Earl of Arundel and Surrey:
RICHARD FitzAlan, son of EDMUND FitzAlan Earl of Arundel & his wife Alice de Warenne ([1313]-Arundel 24 Jan 1376, bur Lewes Priory, Sussex).  His father’s assets having been forfeited following his execution in 1326 (for supporting King Edward II against the Queen and Mortimer), Richard FitzAlan’s inheritance was restored in 1330 and he succeeded as Earl of Arundel, known as “Copped Hat”.  He succeeded in 1347 to the estates of the Warenne family, on the death of his uncle John de Warenne 8th Earl of Surrey, although he only assumed the title Earl of Surrey after the death of the 8th Earl’s widow Joan in 1361.
Succeeded by his son:
RICHARD (1346-beheaded Cheapside 21 Sep 1397, bur Church of the Augustine Friars, Bread Street, London).  He succeeded his father 1376 as Earl of Arundel.  A member of the Council of Regency on the accession of King Richard II.  He took an active part against the King with the Duke of Gloucester.  Despite obtaining a pardon for his political offences in 1394, he was arrested 12 Jul 1297 and found guilty of treason.
Earl of Devon:
HUGH de Courtenary (12 Jul 1303-2 May 1377, bur Exeter Cathedral).He succeeded his father in 1340 as Earl of Devon.  m (contract 27 Sep 1314[389], 11 Aug 1325) MARGARET de Bohun, daughter of HUMPHREY de Bohun Earl of Hertford and Essex & his wife Elizabeth of England (-16 Dec 1391, bur Exeter Cathedral). Earl Hugh & his wife had fifteen children.One of which, Edward was father of EDWARD de Courtenay ([1357]-5 Dec 1419) who succeeded his grandfather in 1377 as Earl of Devon
Earl of Northumberland:
HENRY de Percy, son of HENRY Percy 3rd Lord Percy & his first wife Mary of Lancaster (10 Nov 1341-killed in battle Bramham Moor, near Tadcaster 19 Feb 1408, bur York Minster). He succeeded his father in 1368 as 4th Lord Percy.  Marshal of England 1376.  Created 1st Earl of Northumberland at the coronation of King Richard II 16 Jul 1377.
Earl of Oxford:
ROBERT de Vere (16 Jan 1362-Louvain 1392, bur Louvain, transferred Nov 1395 to Earl’s Colne).  He succeeded his father in 1371 as Earl of Oxford, Hereditary Master Chamberlain.  He was created Marquess of Dublin for life 1 Dec 1385, and Duke of Ireland for life 13 Oct 1386.  He was accused of treason after repudiating his wife, raised troops at Chester and marched to London but was trapped at Radcot Bridge 20 Dec 1387.  He escaped down river, made his way to London and fled to Utrecht, then Paris and later Louvain.  During his absence he was declared guilty of treason and all his honours and property were forfeited[923].  He died from injuries received during a boar hunt.
Earl of Pembroke:
JOHN Hastings (11 Nov 1372-Woodstock 30/31 Dec 1389, bur Hereford, Church of the Friars Preachers, transferred after Mar 1392 to Church of the Grey Friars, London).  He succeeded his father in 1375 as Earl of Pembroke, and his mother in 1384 as Lord Mauny.  He was killed while practising for a tournament. m firstly (Kenilworth Castle, Warwickshire 24 Jun 1380, annulled after 24 Sep 1383) as her first husband, ELIZABETH of Lancaster, daughter of JOHN “of Gaunt” Duke of Lancaster & his first wife Blanche of Lancaster (Burford, Shropshire before 21 Feb 1363-24 Nov 1425, bur Burford Church, Shropshire).  She deserted her first husband, was seduced by her second husband, JOHN de Holand, later Duke of Exeter, whom she hurriedly married as she was pregnant.  She married thirdly (before 12 Dec 1400) as his second wife, Sir John Cornwall.

Thomas de Holand Arms
Thomas de Holand Arms

Earl of Kent:

Thomas de Holand, b. ([1350]-25 Apr 1397, became Earl in 1360 on death of his father. m (after 10 Apr 1364) Alice FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan 9th Earl of Arundel & his wife Eleanor of Lancaster ([1350]-17 Mar 1416).

Thomas’s mother was Joan of Kent, the mother of the future Richard II. As his mother retained the title of Countess of Kent he didn’t become Earl until 1381. At the early age of sixteen he was appointed captain of English forces in Aquitaine, presumably to assist the ailing Black Prince, Richard II’s father. He became a Knight of the Garter in 1375. When Richard became king he grew rich through his influence on the young king.

Between them they had 10 children, all of whom were fairly young at this time.

Earl of Norfolk:

Earl of Norfolk Arms
Earl of Norfolk Arms

MARGARET ([1320/22]-24 Mar 1399, buried in Charterhouse, Smithfield, London or perhaps Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London).  She succeeded her father in 1338[675] as Countess of Norfolk, suo iure (in her own right).  She was created Duchess of Norfolk for life 29 Sep 1397. She also apparently inherited her father’s title of Lord Marshall, the only woman to have done so. She held the title until 1377, when Henry Percy was granted the position on Richard II’s coronation.

She was also know as Lady Manny and Lady Segrave, after her two marriages.

Her first marriage was to Sir John Segrave, Baron Segrave, with whom she had four children. However, they sought a divorce in 1350 on the grounds that they had married when she was under-age. Obviously they didn’t realise this until they had time to conceive four children! Probably the real reason was that she had started an infamous affair with Sir Walter Manny, 1st Baron Manny. She illegally crossed the channel to see him in Calais – presumably he was serving as a soldier there at the time. The divorce was still not finalised in 1353 when Sir John Segrave died. Margaret married Manny a year later. Manny died in 1371 and she did not remarry.

She really sounds like a remarkable lady. In 1376 she would be 56 years old and had more than 20 years of life ahead of her. She must have been very independent and strong willed to have an affair, manage an Earldom’s estates on her own and also take on the ceremonial duties of Lord Marshall as well.  The Lord Marshall was supposed to deal with matters of heraldry and genealogy, not light matters in an age of supposed chivalry.

Her grandson, Thomas Mowbray, would become Duke of Norfolk in 1397 and Earl of Norfolk in 1399. He was born in 1366.

Earl of Warwick:

Coat of Arms of Thomas de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick
Coat of Arms of Thomas de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick

THOMAS de Beauchamp (before 16 Mar 1339-8 Apr 1401, bur Warwick, St Mary’s).  He succeeded his father in 1369 as Earl of Warwick.  m (before Apr 1381) MARGARET Ferrers, daughter of WILLIAM Ferrers 3rd Lord Ferrers of Groby & his first wife Margaret de Ufford Earl of Suffolk (-22 Jan 1407, bur Warwick, St Mary’s).  Earl Thomas & his wife had one child, Richard, born in 1382.

The Earl accompanied John of Gaunt in campaigns in France in 1373, and around that time was made a Knight of the Garter. In the parliaments of 1376 and 1377 he was one of those appointed to supervise reform of King Richard II’s government. When these were not as effective as hoped, Beauchamp was made Governor over the King. He brought a large contingent of soldiers and archers to King Richard’s Scottish campaign of 1385.

In 1387 he was one of the Lords Appellant, who endeavored to separate Richard from his favorites. After Richard regained power, Beauchamp retired to his estates, but was charged with high treason in 1397, supposedly as a part of the Earl of Arundel’s alleged conspiracy. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London (in what is now known as the “Beauchamp Tower”), pleaded guilty and threw himself on the mercy of the king. He forfeited his estates and titles, and was sentenced to life imprisonment on the Isle of Man. The next year, however, he was moved back to the Tower, until he was released in August 1399 after Henry Bolingbroke’s initial victories over king Richard II.

Earl of Arundel and Surrey:

Richard FitzAlan Earl of Arundel and Surrey Coat of Arms
Richard FitzAlan Earl of Arundel and Surrey Coat of Arms

RICHARD FitzAlan, son of EDMUND FitzAlan Earl of Arundel & his wife Alice de Warenne ([1313]-Arundel 24 Jan 1376, bur Lewes Priory, Sussex).  His father’s assets having been forfeited following his execution in 1326 (for supporting King Edward II against the Queen and Mortimer), Richard FitzAlan’s inheritance was restored in 1330 and he succeeded as Earl of Arundel, known as “Copped Hat”.  He succeeded in 1347 to the estates of the Warenne family, on the death of his uncle John de Warenne 8th Earl of Surrey, although he only assumed the title Earl of Surrey after the death of the 8th Earl’s widow Joan in 1361.

Succeeded by his son:

RICHARD (1346-beheaded Cheapside 21 Sep 1397, bur Church of the Augustine Friars, Bread Street, London).  He succeeded his father 1376 as Earl of Arundel.  A member of the Council of Regency on the accession of King Richard II.  He took an active part against the King with the Duke of Gloucester.  Despite obtaining a pardon for his political offences in 1394, he was arrested 12 Jul 1297 and found guilty of treason.

Earl of Devon:

HUGH de Courtenary (12 Jul 1303-2 May 1377, bur Exeter Cathedral).He succeeded his father in 1340 as Earl of Devon.  m (contract 27 Sep 1314[389], 11 Aug 1325) MARGARET de Bohun, daughter of HUMPHREY de Bohun Earl of Hertford and Essex & his wife Elizabeth of England (-16 Dec 1391, bur Exeter Cathedral). Earl Hugh & his wife had fifteen children.One of which, Edward was father of EDWARD de Courtenay ([1357]-5 Dec 1419) who succeeded his grandfather in 1377 as Earl of Devon

Earl of Oxford:

ROBERT de Vere (16 Jan 1362-Louvain 1392, bur Louvain, transferred Nov 1395 to Earl’s Colne).  He succeeded his father in 1371 as Earl of Oxford, Hereditary Master Chamberlain.  He was created Marquess of Dublin for life 1 Dec 1385, and Duke of Ireland for life 13 Oct 1386.  He was accused of treason after repudiating his wife, raised troops at Chester and marched to London but was trapped at Radcot Bridge 20 Dec 1387.  He escaped down river, made his way to London and fled to Utrecht, then Paris and later Louvain.  During his absence he was declared guilty of treason and all his honours and property were forfeited[923].  He died from injuries received during a boar hunt.

Earl of Pembroke:

JOHN Hastings (11 Nov 1372-Woodstock 30/31 Dec 1389, bur Hereford, Church of the Friars Preachers, transferred after Mar 1392 to Church of the Grey Friars, London).  He succeeded his father in 1375 as Earl of Pembroke, and his mother in 1384 as Lord Mauny.  He was killed while practising for a tournament. m firstly (Kenilworth Castle, Warwickshire 24 Jun 1380, annulled after 24 Sep 1383) as her first husband, ELIZABETH of Lancaster, daughter of JOHN “of Gaunt” Duke of Lancaster & his first wife Blanche of Lancaster (Burford, Shropshire before 21 Feb 1363-24 Nov 1425, bur Burford Church, Shropshire).  She deserted her first husband, was seduced by her second husband, JOHN de Holand, later Duke of Exeter, whom she hurriedly married as she was pregnant.  She married thirdly (before 12 Dec 1400) as his second wife, Sir John Cornwall.

Earl of Salisbury

WILLIAM de Montagu (Donyatt, Somerset 20 Jun 1328-3 Jun 1397, bur Bisham).  He succeeded his father in 1344 as Earl of Salisbury.  According to Camden´s Britannia (written in 1607), “William de Montacute the younger earl of Salisbury” conquered the Isle of Man from the Scots and sold it to William Scrope in 1393.  Betrothed (1333) to ALICE of Norfolk, daughter and co-heiress of THOMAS “of Brotherton” Earl of Norfolk and Earl Marshal & his first wife Alice Halys ([1324]-Bungay, Suffolk [14 Nov 1351/30 Jan 1352]), who later married his younger brother Edward.  m firstly (bigamously, before 10 Feb 1341, annulled by Papal Bull 17 Nov 1349) JOAN of Kent, daughter of EDMUND “of Woodstock” Earl of Kent & his wife Margaret Wake (29 Sep 1328-Wallingford Castle, Berkshire 8 Aug 1385, bur 29 Jan 1386 Greyfriars Church, Stamford, Lincolnshire, probably later transferred to London).  She succeeded her brother in 1352 as Countess of Kent, Baroness Woodstock and Baroness Wake, suo iure.  m secondly ELIZABETH Mohun, daughter of JOHN Mohun Lord Mohun of Dunster & his wife Joan Burghersh (1343-[14/16] Jan 1415).  Earl William & his second wife had one child:

Sir WILLIAM de Montagu (-Windsor 6 Aug 1382).  He was killed in a tilting match, it is said by his father.  m (before Dec 1378) as her first husband, ELIZABETH FitzAlan of Arundel, daughter of RICHARD FitzAlan Earl of Arundel & his first wife Elizabeth de Bohun Earl of Northampton (before 1375-8 Jul 1425).

Earl of March

EDMUND Mortimer “the Good”, son of ROGER de Mortimer Lord Mortimer Earl of March & his wife Philippa de Montagu of Salisbury (Llangoed, Llyswen, Breconshire 1 Feb 1352-Cork, Dominican Friary 27 Dec 1381, bur Cork, Dominican Friary, later transferred to Wigmore).  A manuscript narrating the foundation of Wigmore Abbey records the birth “apud Langonith in vigilia Purificacionis beatæ Mariæ Virginis 1351” of “Edmundus”, son of “Rogeri et Philippæ”.  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey names “Edmundus comes Marchiæ et Ultoniæ” as son of “Rogerus”.  He succeeded his father in 1360 as Earl of March.  Earl of Ulster, Lord of Connaught, and Lord of Clare in Suffolk 1368, by right of his wife, having livery of her inheritance 24 Aug 1369 when she came of age.  Marshal of England, resigned 1376.  He sided with the Prince of Wales and the clergy, against John of Gaunt and the Barons.  He was appointed to the Council of Regency on the accession of King Richard II.  Appointed King’s Lieutenant in Ireland 22 Oct 1379, arriving in Ireland 15 May 1380.  A manuscript narrating the foundation of Wigmore Abbey records the death “in festo S. Johannis Evangelistæ…1381…apud Cork in Hibernia” of “Edmundus” and his burial at Cork.

Betrothed (1354) to ALICE FitzAlan, daughter of RICHARD FitzAlan Earl of Arundel & his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster ([1350]-17 Mar 1416).

m (Queen’s Chapel, Reading Abbey after 1359, [May 1368]) PHILIPPA of Clarence, daughter of LIONEL Duke of Clarence & his first wife Elizabeth de Burgh Ctss of Ulster (Eltham Palace, Kent 16 Aug 1355-[21 Nov 1378/9 Feb 1381], bur Cork, Ireland, later transferred to Wigmore, Herefordshire).  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey names “Philippa” as only daughter of “Leonellus filius secundus Regis Edwardi tertii” and his wife Elizabeth, adding that she married “domino Edmundo comiti Marchiæ” and naming her descendants.  She succeeded her mother in 1363 as Ctss of Ulster.

Edmund Mortimer Earl of March & his wife had three children and another on the way during 1376.

Earl of SuffolkUfford Coat of Arms

WILLIAM de Ufford ([1339]-15 Feb 1382, bur Campsey Priory).  He succeeded his father in 1369 as Earl of Suffolk.  The earldom of Suffolk reverted to the crown on his death in 1382 – his five children all having died by 1375.  m firstly (before 3 Feb 1363) JOAN de Montagu, daughter of EDWARD de Montagu Lord Montagu & his first wife Alice of Norfolk (Bungay, Suffolk 2 Feb 1349-before 12 Jun 1376).  m secondly (12 Jun 1376 or before) as her second husband, ISABEL Beauchamp, widow of JOHN Lestrange Lord Strange, daughter of [THOMAS Beauchamp Earl of Warwick & his wife Catherine de Mortimer] (-29 Sep 1416, bur Campsey Priory).  She became a nun 21 Mar 1382.  Earl William & his first wife had five children, but they all seem to have died by 1375.

He was the son of Robert de Ufford, who was created Earl of Suffolk by Edward III in 1337.[1] William had three older brothers who all predeceased him, and in 1369 he succeeded his father. In the 1370s, he participated in several campaigns of the Hundred Years’ War, but this period was not a successful one for England. Suffolk was closely connected to Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick and John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and his conciliatory skills were highly valued in national politics. He helped arbitrate in the conflict between Gaunt and the parliamentary Commons during the Good Parliament. In 1381, Suffolk took part in suppressing the Peasants’ Revolt in East Anglia, after narrowly escaping the rebels himself. He died suddenly in 1382 while attending parliament, and since he had no surviving children, his title went extinct and his property was dispersed.

Earl of StaffordStafford Coat of Arms

HUGH de Stafford (-1386).  “Radulphus comes Stafford et dominus de Tonebrugge” donated property to Cold Norton Priory, for the soul of “Margaretæ uxoris nostræ”, by undated charter witnessed by “Hugone de Stafford filio et hærede nostro, Ricardo de Stafford fratre nostro, Johanne de Peyto consanguineo nostro…”.  He succeeded his father in 1372 as Earl of Stafford.  m PHILIPPA de Beauchamp, daughter of THOMAS de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick & his wife Catherine de Mortimer.  Hugh & his wife had six children. The eldest son Thomas was born in 1368 and would succeed his father as Earl upon his death in 1386.

Hugh de Stafford was the second son of Ralph Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford and Margaret de Audley. His elder brother, Ralph, was intended to inherit the title and had been married to Maud Grosmont, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Isabel de Beaumont in 1344, with the expectation that he would expand the Stafford estates by inheriting had the Lancastrian duchy. However, Ralph died early in 1347 and Hugh became heir.

Hugh joined his father in the French campaigns in 1359, being part of the retinue of Edward, Prince of Wales, speeding time in Gascony and northern Spain.

He spent many years in military service, before returning to England and being summoned to Parliament in 1371 as Lord Stafford and later as Earl Stafford. He was a member of a number of royal commissions, such as ones on Scottish affairs and on coastal defence. He was on the committee of nobles who conferred regularly with the Commons, being deemed suitable by that House to be part of the new ‘continual council’ of state. He did not always make the best decisions though and was admonished by his peers for censuring the John Philipot, the London MP and merchant who had mobilised a fleet to defend merchant shipping.

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